LA SAPIENZA
Università di Roma

Domanda di finanziamento per Professori Visitatori per attività di ricerca

Anno: 2014 - prot. C26V13ELA2

1. Dati Generali



1.1 Docente proponente

KEIDAN
(cognome) 
Artemij
(nome) 
Ricercatore non conf.
(qualifica) 
20/02/1977
(data di nascita) 
Istituto italiano di Studi orientali - ISO
(dip/istit) 
P.le Aldo Moro, 5
00185 ROMA

(indirizzo) 
0649913555
(telefono) 

(fax) 
artemij.keidan@uniroma1.it
(e-mail) 


1.2 Curriculum Vitae del Docente Proponente


FORMAZIONE
2001: Laurea vecchio ordinamento (110 e lode) in Glottologia, Sapienza Università di Roma. Titolo della tesi: "Nuovo Testamento in gotico", relatore Prof. C. Del Zotto, correlatore Prof. C. A. Ciancaglini.
2001: Primo classificato al concorso per il Dottorato in “Linguistica Storica e Storia linguistica italiana”, XVII ciclo, Sapienza Università di Roma
2001: Corso di aggiornamento in discipline linguistiche della Società Italiana di Glottologia, Università di Udine
2003: Corso di aggiornamento in discipline linguistiche della Società Italiana di Glottologia, Università di Udine
2005: Discussione, con esito positivo, della tesi di dottorato "L’Aṣṭādhyāyī di Pāṇini: aspetti teorici e formali", tutore Prof. Paolo Di Giovine

CARRIERA
Lug 2009 – Giu 2010: contratto integrativo per Morfologia e sintassi (L-LIN/01), Facoltà di Studi Orientali, Sapienza Università di Roma
Mag 2010 – Ott 2010: Lettorato di lingua russa, Facoltà di Lettere e Filosofia, Università degli studi dell’Auqila
Nov 2011–: Ricercatore universitario, SSD L-LIN/01, Dpt. ISO – Istituto Italiano di Studi Orientali, Facoltà di Lettere e Filosofia, Sapienza Università di Roma

FINANZIAMENTI RICEVUTI
2005–2007: Titolare dell'assegno di ricerca biennale per il progetto "Consistenza ed evoluzione dei sistemi morfo-fonologici e sintattici delle lingue indoeuropee", Facoltà di Studi Orientali, Sapienza Università di Roma
2007–2008: Titolare del rinnovo annuale dell'assegno di ricerca per il progetto "Consistenza ed evoluzione dei sistemi morfo-fonologici e sintattici delle lingue indoeuropee", Facoltà di Studi Orientali, Sapienza Università di Roma
2008–2009: Titolare del rinnovo annuale dell'assegno di ricerca per il progetto "Consistenza ed evoluzione dei sistemi morfo-fonologici e sintattici delle lingue indoeuropee", Facoltà di Studi Orientali, Sapienza Università di Roma
2012: Principal investigator del Progetto di ricerca annuale dal titolo “La morfologia derivazionale nelle lingue indoeuropee orientali: dal pensiero grammaticale antico all'indoeuropeistica moderna”, Sapienza Università di Roma

PUBBLICAZIONI

In stampa
• "Direct and Indirect Evidence on Lability in Middle Indo-Aryan", L. Kulikov, N. Lavidas (eds.), Papers from the Workshop ‘Typology of labile verbs: Focus on diachrony’ (ISTAL 19, Thessaloniki 2009), Linguistics 52 (2014)
• "Stratifications in Pāṇiniʼs kāraka theory: a functionalist approach", É. Aussant (eds), Papers from the panel ‘The Indian traditions of language studies’ (ICHoLS XI, Potsdam 2008)
• (con Elisa Freschi) "Understanding a philosophical text: a multi-disciplinary approach to Jayanta’s Nyayamañjarī’, Journal of Indian Philosophy
• (curatela, con Marco Ferrante) The Study of South Asia between Antiquity and Modernity. Parallels and Comparisons. Proceeding of the Coffee Break Conference 2 (Rome, 8–10 September 2011), Rivista di Studi Sudasiatici, 5 (2012)

Articoli
• "The kāraka-vibhakti device as a heuristic tool for the compositional history of Pāṇini’s Aṣṭādhyāyī", Rivista degli Studi Orientali 84 (2011): 273–288
• "Language and linguistics as an analytic tool for the study of (oriental) cultures", Rivista degli Studi Orientali 84 (2011): 235–240
• "Translation Techniques in the Asiatic Cultures. Abstract of the panel", A. Keidan (ed.), The Study of Asia – between Antiquity and Modernity. Coffee Break Conference III. University of Cagliari (Sardinia), 13–16 June 2012. Book of abstracts, Lulu.com: 63–70
• "Compositional history of Pāṇiniʼs kāraka theory", Materialy čtenij pamjati I. M. Tronskogo 14 (2010): vol. 2, 33–46
• "Predicative possessive constructions in Japanese and Korean", Rivista degli Studi Orientali 81 (2008): 339–367
• "Le iscrizioni novgorodiane su corteccia di betulla in ottica comparatistica", Incontri Linguistici 32 (2009): 175–196
• "La lingua dei goti: linguistica, tipografia, ideologia", C. Barsanti, A. Paribeni, S. Pedone (curr.), Rex Theodericus. Il Medaglione d'oro di Morro d'Alba, Roma: Espera, 2008: 249–260
• "Deissi, arbitrarietà e disambiguazione. Due approcci a confronto", A. Keidan, L. Alfieri (curr.), Deissi, riferimento, metafora. Questioni classiche di linguistica e filosofia del linguaggio. Firenze: FUP, 2008: 19–66
• "Pāṇini 1.4.23: emendation proposal", Rivista di Studi Sudasiatici 2 (2007): 209–241
• "Word boundaries in Pāṇini and Avesta: a linguistic view", Materialy čtenij pamjati I. M. Tronskogo 11 (2007): 145–152
• "«Kal’kirovannyj arxaizm» gotskogo jazyka", Materialy čtenij pamjati I. M. Tronskogo 10 (2006): 149–155
• "Il gotico di Wulfila: tra diacronia e retorica", AIΩN-Linguistica 23 (2001): 49–105

Recensioni
• "G. Marotta, A. Lenci, L. Meini, F. Rovai (eds.). Space in Language. Proceedings of the Pisa International Conference, Pisa 2010", Incontri Linguistici 34 (2011): 181–182
• "S. Neri. Cadere e abbattere in indoeuropeo", Incontri Linguistici 31 (2008): 222–224
• "A.A. Zaliznjak. Slovo o polku igoreve", Incontri Linguistici 31 (2008): 211–212
• "G. Ferraresi. Word Order and Phrase Structure in Gothic, Incontri Linguistici 30 (2007): 228–229

CONVEGNI CON PEER REVIEW
• "A Semiotic Approach to the Study of Translation", The Study of Asia – between Antiquity and Modernity. 3rd Coffee Break Conference, Università di Cagliari, 13–15/06/2012
• (con Elisa Freschi) "What is the goal one has in view while editing a philosophical work?", 15th World Sanskrit Conference, 5–10/01/2012, New Delhi, Rashtriya Sanskrit Sansthan
• "Compositional history of Pāṇiniʼs kāraka theory", Čtenija pamjati I. M. Tronskogo, 21–23/06/2010, San Pietroburgo, Istituto di Studi Linguistici – Accademia delle Scienze
• "How modern linguistics can help us to reconstruct the compositional history of Pāṇiniʼs grammar", Lo studio dell’Asia fra antico e moderno. Giornate di studio, 10–12/06/2010, Sapienza Università di Roma
• "Possessive predicates from Archaic Latin to the Romance languages: an issue of topicality and word order?", Workshop: Variation and Change in Argument Realization, 27–30/05/2010, Università di Napoli
• "Pāṇinīya tradition as a source for the study of the MI labile verbs", ISTAL 19th. International Symposium on Theoretical and Applied Linguistics, 3–5/04/2009, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Department of Theoretical and Applied Linguistics
• "Stratifications in Pāṇiniʼs kāraka theory: a functionalist approach", ICHoLS XI: International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences, 28/08–2/09/2008, Universität Potsdam
• "Word boundaries in Pāṇini and Avesta: a linguistic view", Čtenija pamjati I. M. Tronskogo», 18–20/06/2006, San Pietroburgo, Istituto di Studi Linguistici – Accademia delle Scienze
• "«Kal’kirovannyj arxaizm» gotskogo jazyka", Čtenija pamjati I. M. Tronskogo, 19–21/06/2005, San Pietroburgo, Istituto di Studi Linguistici – Accademia delle Scienze

ALTRI TITOLI
2012: Membro della Società Italiana di Glottologia
2012: Redattore capo della Rivista di Studi Sudasiatici (Roma)
2010: Membro fondatore del progetto Coffee Break Conferences (http://asiatica.wikispaces.com)



1.3 Docente da invitare

Cognome   Lubotsky     
Nome   Alexander     
Qualifica   Full Professor  equiparabile a   prof. Ordinario 
Data di nascita   16/04/1956     
Telefono   +31-71-5272190     
Fax        
E-Mail   a.m.lubotsky@hum.leidenuniv.nl     
Università o Istituzione   Dept. of Comparative Indo-European Linguistics (VIET), Leiden University     
Sito Web Università o Istituzione   http://www.hum.leiden.edu/lucl/organisation/members-f-l/lubotskya.html     
Indirizzo   P.N. van Eyckhof 3, Postbus 9515, 2300 RA     
Città   Leiden     
Stato   NETHERLANDS     


1.4 Curriculum Vitae e Pubblicazioni più significative del Professore Visitatore

FORMAZIONE
1973–1976: Studi di linguistica presso la Lomonosov University, Mosca (URSS)
1978: laurea di primo livello (BA), tema: Indo-Iranian, Leiden University
1980: laurea di secondo livello (MA), tema: Comparative Indo-European Linguistics, Leiden University
1987: dottorato di ricerca (PhD), titolo della tesi: “Nominal accentuation in Sanskrit and Indo-European”, con la supervisione di R.S.P. Beekes

CARRIERA
1980–1999: Professore Associato (Assistant Professor), Leiden University
1999–oggi: Professore Ordinario (Full Professor of Comparative Indo-European Linguistics), Leiden University
2006–: Direttore della Leiden Summer School in Languages and Linguistics, Leiden University
1992–: Responsabile del progetto Indo-European Etymological Dictionary

PROGETTI FINANZIATI
1997: Research grant (3 borse postdocs) per il progetto Indo-European Etymological Dictionary finanziati dalla NWO
1992, 1998, 2008, 2009: Visiting grants per i professori J. Hilmarsson, S. Starostin, R. Matasović, V. Sadovski (NWO)
2005, 2008, 2011: Research grants per il progetto Indo-European Etymological Dictionary finanziati da Brill

TITOLI
2003–: Membro della Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences (KNAW)

INCARICHI EDITORIALI
1991–: responsabile scientifico della collana “Leiden Studies in Indo-European” (Rodopi; 18 volumi)
2005–: responsabile scientifico della collana “Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary series” (Brill; 10 volumi)
2010–: editor del “Indo-European Etymological Dictionaries Online” (Brill)
2002–: membro del comitato scientifico della rivista “Nartamongæ. The Journal of Alano-Ossetic Studies”
2008–: membro del comitato scientifico della rivista “Journal of Language Relationship”
2008–: membro del comitato scientifico della rivista “Historische Sprachforschung”
2008–: membro del comitato editoriale della collana “Brill's Studies in Indo-European Languages & Linguistics”
2011–: membro del comitato scientifico della rivista “Studi Iranici Ravennati”

ATTIVITÀ SEMINARIALE SU INVITO
1993, 2005: guest lectures, Universität Wien (Austria)
1994: visiting professor, Cornell University e Yale University (USA)
1996, 1999: guest lectures, Harvard University (USA)
2002: guest lecture, Collège de France (Parigi, Francia)
2002: "directeur d’études invité", École Pratique des Hautes Études (Parigi, Francia)
2007: guest lecture, Universität Köln (Germania)
2007: ciclo di lezioni “Sanskrit Historical Phonology”, Università di Palermo
2008: guest lectures, Institut für Iranistik, Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften (Vienna, Austria)
2012: guest lecture, Wiener Sprachgesellschaft (Vienna, Austria)

INVITED SPEAKER
Roma (1995), Philadelphia (1996), Helsinki (1999), Cambridge (1999), Kyoto (1999), Cambridge (1999), Mosca (2000), Halle/Saale (2000), Copenhagen (2000), Gerusalemme (2001), Lipsia (2001), Santa Fe (2003), Münster (2004), Halle (2004), Santa Fe (2004), Istanbul (2005), Vienna (2005), Beyşehir (2006), Ashgabad (2006), Münster (2006), Lipsia (2006), Mosca (2008), Münster (2008), Ravenna (2009), Parigi (2010), Münster (2010), Los Angeles (2010), Opava (2010), Vienna (2012), Ravenna (2012)

RELATORE DI TESTI DI DOTTORATO (PhD)
J.T.L. Cheung (2000), L. Kulikov (2001), M.A.C. de Vaan (2002), D. Baum (2005), S. Starostin (titolo onorario, 2005), G. Kroonen (2009), W. Knobl (2009), M. Peyrot (2010), Kalsang Norbu Gurung (2011), Benedicte Nielsen Whitehead (2012), Saskia Pronk-Tiethoff (2012)

INCARICHI AMMINISTRATIVI
1999–: Direttore del Department of Comparative Indo-European Linguistics
2001–2007: Membro del comitato organizzativo delle Olimpiadi Annuali di Linguistica
2004–: Membro del board della Indogermanische Gesellschaft
2004–2008: Direttore del F.B.J. Kuiperinstituut
2005–2008: Membro del CDA e del Senato del Leiden University Center for Linguistics
2007–2009: Membro della “Begeleidingscommissie” Etymologisch Woordenboek van het Nederlands (INL)
2008: Membro della “Projektkommission” Etymologisches Wörterbuch des Althochdeutschen (Universität Jena), Union der deutschen Akademien
2008–: Chairman della sezione “Taal- en Literatuurwetenschappen” della Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences (KNAW)
2008–: Membro del board del Stichting J. Gonda-Fonds (KNAW)
2011–: Membro del comitato scientifico del Leiden University Center for Linguistics
2012–: Vice-presidente della Indogermanische Gesellschaft

PUBBLICAZIONI RILEVANTI PER IL PROGETTO

Monografie
The system of nominal accentuation in Sanskrit and Proto Indo European, Leiden: Brill (1988)
A Rgvedic Word Concordance. 2 Vols. (American Oriental Series, Vols. 82 and 83.) New Haven (American Oriental Society), 1997
Atharvaveda-Paippalāda, kāṇḍa five. Text, translation, commentary. (Harvard Oriental Series, Opera Minora, Vol. 4). Cambridge (Mass.), 2002

Articoli
• "On the external sandhis of the Maitrāyaṇī Saṃhitā", Indo Iranian Journal (1983) 25: 167–179
• "Against a Proto Indo European phoneme *a". The New Sound of Indo European. Essays in Phonological Reconstruction, Th. Vennemann (ed.). (= Trends in Linguistics, Studies and Monographs 41), Berlin & New York 1989, 53–66
• "The Vedic -aya-formations". Indo Iranian Journal 32 (1989): 89–113
• "Nasalization of the final a in the Rgveda". Indo Iranian Journal 36 (1993): 197–210
• "Sanskrit h < *dh, bh". Sthāpakashrāddham, Professor G.A. Zograf Commemorative Volume, N.V. Gurov and Ja.V. Vasil'kov (eds.), St. Petersburg 1995: 124–144
• "Observations on the longest birchbark letter (Novgorod 531)". Russian Linguistics 22 (1998): 143–164 [con Willem Vermeer]
• "Reflexes of Proto-Indo-European *sk in Indo-Iranian". Incontri linguistici 24 (2001): 25–57
• "The Indo-Iranian substratum. Early Contacts between Uralic and Indo-European: Linguistic and Archaeological Considerations". Papers presented at an international symposium held at the Tvärminne Research Station of the University of Helsinki 8–10 January 1999. (Mémoires de la Société Finno-ougrienne 242.), Chr. Carpelan, A. Parpola, P. Koskikallio (eds.). Helsinki 2001: 301–317
• "The Indo-Iranian word for ‘shank, shin’". Journal of the American Oriental Society 122 (2002): 318–324
• "The Phrygian Zeus and the problem of the «Lautverschiebung»". Historische Sprachforschung 117 (2004): 229–237
• "Indo-European ‘heel’". Studi linguistici in onore di Roberto Gusmani, R. Bombi, G. Cifoletti, F. Fusco, L. Innocente, & V. Orioles (eds.), Alessandria 2006: 1005–1010
• "New words and word forms in the Atharva-Veda Paippalāda (Kāṇḍa 5)". Language, ritual and poetics in ancient India and Iran: Studies in honor of Shaul Migron, D. Shulman (ed.), Jerusalem 2010: 39-65
• "The origin of Sanskrit roots of the type sīv- ‘to sew’, dīv- ‘to play dice’, with an appendix on Vedic i-perfects". Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Indo-European Conference, Stephanie W. Jamison, H. Craig Melchert, Brent Vine (eds.), Bremen 2011: 105–126
• "Old Persian". Languages from the World of the Bible, H. Gzella (ed.), Boston/Berlin 2011: 194–208 [con Michiel de Vaan]
• "The Vedic paradigm for ‘water’". Adam I. Cooper, Jeremy Rau, Michael Weiss (eds.), Multi Nominis Grammaticus: Studies in Classical and Indo-European Linguistics in Honor of Alan J. Nussbaum on the Occasion of his Sixty-fifth Birthday, Ann Arbor & New York: Beech Stave Press, 2013: 159–164

Curatele
Rekonstruktion und relative Chronologie. Akten der VIII. Fachtagung der Indogermanischen Gesellschaft, Leiden, 31. August – 4. September 1987, edd. R. Beekes, A. Lubotsky, J. Weitenberg. Innsbruck (IBS) 1992
F.B.J. Kuiper, Selected writings on Indian linguistics and philology, Edited by A. Lubotsky, M.S. Oort and M. Witzel. Amsterdam & Atlanta (Rodopi) 1997
Sound Law and Analogy. Papers in honor of Robert S.P. Beekes on the occasion of his 60th birthday, ed. by Alexander Lubotsky. Amsterdam & Atlanta (Rodopi) 1997
Evidence and Counter-Evidence, Essays in honour of Frederik Kortlandt, Volume 1: Balto-Slavic and Indo-European Linguistics [616pp.]. Volume 2: General linguistics. A. Lubotsky, J. Schaeken, J. Wiedenhof (eds.). Amsterdam & New York 2008.

Edizioni online
Indo-European Etymological Dictionaries Online, Brill, Brill Online Dictionaries. 2010 (http://indo-european.info)


1.5 Sintesi del progetto di ricerca


The research project to be brought about with the contribution of Prof. Lubotsky as a visiting professor aims at providing a theoretical and methodological basis for the description, analysis and classification of the isoglosses between Indo-European languages not bound by an immediate genetic relationship (i.e. not descending from the same closest ancestor, such as Proto-Germanic for the historically attested Germanic languages). Such languages can also be considered the "second generation" Indo-European languages, as opposed to the oldest "first generation" IE languages (e.g. Vedic, Hittite, Mycenaean).

These isoglosses are imagined to go across the traditionally established branches of the genetic tree of the IE family of languages. The "Tree model" has always been relatively predominant in the field of Indo-European linguistics from its initial original formulation by A. Schleicher (1862) up to the present days. However, the well-known flaws of this model have never been definitively overcome; particularly, the problem of branch-crossing isoglosses, as pointed out by J. Schmidt (1872) with his proposal of an alternative "Wave model", is not given any explanation within Schleicherian model.

The Wave theory has been substantiated by a list of shared features provided already by Schmidt himself and, later, by other authors. However, a systematic classification and analysis of these isoglosses has never been made. While the Tree model constituted the framework for a number of larger systematic surveys of the Indo-European family (from Delbrück & Brugmann's Grundriß onwards), the Wave model lacks a similar big compendium of data.

Furthermore, the Tree model approach has, perhaps, partly favored the proliferation of the abstract categories in the IE studies, some of which are totally logic-grounded and being never attested directly, sometimes reaching the limits of falsifiability (see Neri 2007 for a similar reconstruction). Thus, the omnipresent laryngeals of some modern IE reconstructions are a typical instance of this theoretic approach. The wave model, on the other hand, privileges the study of the historically attested isoglosses, leaves little room for speculation and is, therefore, less susceptible to the risk of unfalsifiability. Thus, one of the ground ideas behind the present research program is that the IE studies must turn back to the analysis of the concrete linguistic data.

The ultimate goal of this analysis is to define larger linguistic areas (Sprachbunds) made up by second generation IE languages that share a good deal of isoglosses, regardless of their closest genetic origin. At the end of the research program, the isoglosses will be gathered into a database or a survey, presenting all available data and their characterization in terms of chronology, geographic mapping and genetic relations.

In the best hypothesis a "second generation IE average standard" will be successfully defined.

Presently, however, we are involved into the very initial phase of this research program (which, in its entirety, will take several years of team work). At this stage the main theoretical tools must be defined and evaluated.

I. First, a provisional definition of the notion of "second generation" IE language must be provided. Such a notion must not be confused with that of the "middle" stage of the history of many IE languages, such as Middle Indo-Aryan, Middle Iranian, Greek Koine, etc. Indeed, this category should also contain many IE languages (e.g. Slavic, Armenian, Tocharian) whose first attestation chronologically matches the "middle" period of the oldest languages. Furthermore, some "second generation" features can be found also in the oldest "first generation" IE languages.

II. Typological classification of the branch-crossing isoglosses must be provided on the ground of their possible origin. Indeed, several possible sources can be delineated for this kind of isoglosses:

1) Casual coincidence
Some general tendencies are, indeed, always present in the diachronic change of languages due to the principle of economy of muscular and mental energy in the production of speech (see Martinet 1955). There must not be any necessary relation between different instances of such developments in different languages. Thus, the spirantization of /g/ in Ukrainian and Dutch is only a coincidence due to a natural tendency to weaken the articulation of voiced velars.

2) Same substrate influence
A common (or similar) substrate language can lead to a shared innovation in a group of unrelated languages. Thus, the increasing number of cases registered in Tocharian, but also in Middle and New Indo-Aryan languages (as opposed to the Iranian branch of the Indo-Iranian group), can be ascribed to typologically similar substrate varieties; a growth of case-forms number registered in Slavic and Baltic languages is also correlated with a common (Ugro-Finnic?) substrate, see Kulikov 2011.

3) Common drift
The classic example of drift is the Umlaut phenomenon in German and English (with a very similar parallel development in French, see Belardi 1979), and especially its development into a morphological feature, namely the marker of the plural (which is the classical example of drift initially proposed by Sapir 1921).

4) Cross-branch contacts
These are the isoglosses that the present research program is mostly focused on. An important task should be to provide a clear differentiation between type 3 (common drift) and type 4 (contacts proper). The most important parameter, in this respect, must be the chronology and internal reconstruction: if two languages can be proven to develop a common feature not originating from any kind of possible common genetic background in some preceding stages, then it must be considered a true contact-based branch-crossing innovation.

III. A complete collection of contact-based isoglosses, distinguished from those of the other types, is the foremost task of this research. However, at the present stage, we must concern ourselves with collecting, classifying and analyzing the relevant data from the previous works.

The contribution of A. Lubotsky as a visiting professor would be of an inestimable value since he is one of the most influential contemporary Indo-Europeanists, and also an authority in many subfields of the IE studies. His theoretical and practical contribution will be of utmost importance, particularly in the task of differentiating the types of isoglosses and in the concrete data analysis (especially from the Indo-Aryan branch of the IE family).

Jointly to the proponent and other scholars involved into this research project, he will participate at the panel Cross-branch Late Indo-European isoglosses: problem setting within the international symposium Coffee Break Conference 5, organized by the proponent and Dr. E. Freschi, with a grant from the Institute for the Cultural and Intellectual History of Asia – Austrian Academy of Sciences (Vienna) and a possible grant from Sapienza University of Rome (application num. C26C134CZ4). During that occasion the first results of the research project will be presented and publicly discussed.


1.6 Obiettivi e risultati attesi


CONCEPTUAL TOOLS DEFINITION

During the initial phase of the research program some important theoretical questions must be clarified and better definition of the main heuristic tools must be provided.

First of all, the general problem of the language change model must be rethought in order to accommodate our needs in the present research. Thus, the Wave model is taken to be our working hypothesis, but it must not be elevated to an untouchable dogma (see Höfler 1955, Lazzeroni 1968, Goebl 1983).

Secondly, we must develop a procedure for distinguishing between the four types of isogloss sources. The fourth type is the most important for the present research. However, the distinction between contact phenomena and parallel drifts is not always clear-cut, as well as the one between drifts and sporadic natural changes. Most probably, the main differentiating criterion must be seen in the relative chronology of the innovations, i.e. whether they appear convergent or divergent in diachrony.

Furthermore, a first draft of the definition of the "second generation IE standard" could be sketched already in this phase of research. Such definition will necessarily undergo many modifications during the forthcoming years of this research program, but at this stage it seems useful to have a reference point that could be used in order to classify the linguistic data under consideration. For instance, with such an ideal reference point in mind, we could reinterpret as drift or contact phenomena some of the isoglosses that are traditionally considered to go back to a common genetic archetype.

DATA COLLECTING

Many branch-crossing isoglosses are widely known nowadays. Here some of them are listed in order to exemplify the data we are looking for.

Phonology
– loss of the qualitative distinction between /a/ and /o/, everywhere except Greek and Latin
– loss of the aspirated stops, everywhere except for Sanskrit, Classical Greek and Armenian
– creation of the back spirants /x/, from different sources
– aspiration or loss of /s/ in many positions
– palatalization of velar stops, as well as of other consonants

Morphology
– creation of a new adjectival declension through adding pronominal elements to former nouns, in the Prakrits, in Slavic and Germanic languages
– increasing productivity of the derivational velar suffix (coming from IE *-ko) for the formation of adjectives, attested in a large number of "second generation" IE languages, from Middle Iranian to Slavic, Latin, Greek, Germanic (see Ciancaglini 2012)
– creation of an infinitive formation from the dative/accusative case-form of an older verbal noun

Syntax
– evolution towards a rigid word order (from the almost completely free word order supposed for Proto-IE)
– evolution towards the generalization of the transitive construction, with a strong subjecthood (see Bauer 2000, Kulikov 2012, Comrie 2006)
– evolution from the existential possessive construction (such as Latin mihi est liber 'I have a book') towards the lexicalized transitive possessive predicate (such as English verb to have), correlated with the rigid word order (see Keidan 2008; cf. Baldi & Cuzzolin 2010).

Lexicon
A great number of long-distance lexical isoglosses within the IE languages have been known for many years (having started from such important data collections as Schmidt 1872). A correspondence between Sanskrit namas 'offering' and Novgorodian Old Russian namъ 'loan' could be mentioned among the new discoveries in this respect (see Patri 2001, Keidan 2009)

METHODOLOGY

Our task is to establish a methodology for the analysis of such data, and also for uncovering other possible isoglosses that have not been noted by scholars so far.

A provisional definition of the "second generation IE stand" will be based on the analysis of the collected data. Not every isogloss is of the same value for us. Thus, systematic contact-based isoglosses are to be privileged over the casual ones: sporadic coincidences, based on a natural tendency of language to minimize the effort in the speech, are of lesser interest for our goals since they are less informative for us. For example, the lexical borrowings and common metaphorical developments in the lexicon are more often of a sporadic nature, while systematic innovations in phonology and morphology are of a greater interest.

REFERENCES

Ph. Baldi & P. Cuzzolin, New Perspectives on Historical Latin Syntax: Constituent syntax. 3. Quantification, Numerals, possession, anaphora. Berlin, New York: Mouton De Gruyter, 2010
B. Bauer, Archaic Syntax in Indo-European. Berlin, New York: Mouton, 2000.
W. Belardi, Dal latino alle lingue romanze. Il vocalismo. Roma: Bulzoni, 1979
K. Brugmann & B. Delbrück, Grundriß der vergleichenden Grammatik der indogermanischen Sprachen. Strassburg: Trübner, 1886–1900
C. Ciancaglini, 'Outcomes of the Indo-Iranian Suffix *-ka- in Old Persian and Avestan', G. P. Basello & A. V. Rossi (eds.), Dariosh Studies II. Persepolis and its Settlements: Territorial System and Ideology in the Achaemenid State. Napoli, 2012
B. Comrie, 'Transitivity pairs, markedness, and diachronic stability', Linguistics 44/2 (2006): 303–318
H. Goebl, '«Stammbaum» und «Welle». Vergleichende Betrachtungen aus numerisch-taxonomischer Sicht', Zeitschrift für Sprachwissenschaft 2 (1983): 3–44
O. Höfler, 'Stammbaumtheorie, Wellentheorie, Entfaltungstheorie', Beiträge zur Geschichte der deutschen Sprache und Literatur 77 (1955): 424–476
A. Keidan, ‘Le iscrizioni novgorodiane su corteccia di betulla in ottica comparatistica’, Incontri Linguistici 32 (2009): 175–196
— 'Predicative possessive constructions in Japanese and Korean', Rivista degli Studi Orientali 81 (2008): 339–367
L. Kulikov, 'Voice and valency derivations in old Indo-Aryan in a diachronic typological perspective: the degrammaticalization of the middle and other trends in the vedic verbal system', L. Milazzo (ed.), Usare il presente per spiegare il passato. Teorie linguistiche contemporanee e lingue storiche. Atti del XXXIII Convegno della Società Italiana di Glottologia. Roma: Il calamo, 2012
— 'The Proto-Indo-European case system and its reflexes in a diachronic typological perspective: Evidence for the linguistic prehistory of Eurasia', Rivista degli Studi Orientali 84 (2011): 289–309
R. Lazzeroni, 'Per una definizione dell'unità indo-iranica', Studi e saggi linguistici, 8 (1968): 132–159
A. Martinet, Économie des changements phonétiques. Traité de phonologie diachronoque. Bern: Francke, 1955
S. Neri, Cadere e abbattere in indoeuropeo: sull'etimologia di tedesco fallen, latino aboleo e greco apollumi. Innsbruck: Institut für Sprachen und Literaturen der Universität, 2007
S. Patri, 'Une correspondance irano-slave en novgorodien', Historische Sprachforschung 114/2 (2001): 284–297
E. Sapir, Language. An Introduction to the Study of Speech. New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1921
A. Schleicher, Compendium der vergleichenden Grammatik der indogermanischen Sprachen. Weimar: H. Böhlau, 1862
J. Schmidt, Die Verwandtschaftsverhältnisse der indogermanischen Sprachen. Weimar: H. Böhlau, 1872


1.7 La ricerca è inserita in un progetto internazionale?


La presente richiesta di finanziamento è inserita nell'ambito di un programma di ricerca che, in linea di principio, avrà durata pluriennale. Attualmente il progetto sta entrando nella sua fase iniziale. Per il primo anno di lavoro è stata fatta la domanda, da parte del Dott. A. Keidan in qualità di Principal Investigator, per un Progetto di ricerca d'Ateneo (anno finanziario 2013, rif. C26A13JEF9), in attesa di approvazione. Tale progetto, intitolato Going across the tree branches: «second generation» Indo-European isoglosses, prevede la partecipazione di studiosi di due diversi dipartimenti della Sapienza Università di Roma, nonché del prof. L. Kulikov dell'Università di Ghent (Belgio).

Inoltre, i primi risultati della ricerca, coadiuvata dal Prof. A. Lubotsky in qualità di visiting professor, saranno esposti in occasione del convegno Coffee Break Conference 5, in particolare nel panel Cross-branch Late Indo-European isoglosses: problem setting, finanziato con un grant dell'Institute for the Cultural and Intellectual History of Asia. Austrian Academy of Sciences (Vienna), nonché oggetto, da parte del Dott. A. Keidan, di una richiesta di finanziamento d'Ateneo per Convegni e congressi 2014 (anno finanziario 2013, rif. C26C134CZ4).


2. Preventivo di spesa




2.1 Soggiorno

Numero di giorni previsti (minimo 90 giorni, massimo 180)

 
90 

Contributo richiesto per il soggiorno

  • € 4.000,00 per docenti di eccellente qualità scientifica/mese
  • € 3.000,00 per docenti di buona qualità scientifica/mese )

 
€ 3.000 

Contributo totale richiesto per il soggiorno

 

€ 9.000

 

il 10% dell'importo graverà sul bilancio del dipartimento ospitante a titolo di cofinanziamento


2.2 Data prevista per la visita

(La visità dovrà essere continuativa)

Data inizio

 
aprile 2014 

Data fine

 
giugno 2014 


2.3 Eventuali precedenti finanziamenti ottenuti dal proponente

Cognome  Nome  Nazione  Università di provenienza  Anno finanziario  Situazione visita  Relazione visita effettuata 


2.4 Relazione dell'ultima visita finanziata al richiedente con eventuali pubblicazioni




3. Parere del Dipartimento del responsabile

contenente l'assunzione dell'impegno alla copertura finanziaria del 10% del contributo totale richiesto a titolo di cofinanziamento

Data delibera:   16/04/2013  Parere:   POSITIVO 




 
 

Data 28/04/2013 15:06